page – view FAX, image, graphic, PostScript, PDF, and typesetter
page [ −abirPRvVw ] [ −p ppi ] [ file... ]|
Page is a general purpose document viewer. It can be used to display
the individual pages of a PostScript, PDF, or troff(1) or Unix’s
tex(1) device-independent output file. Troff or tex output is
simply converted to PostScript in order to be viewed. It can also
be used to view any number of graphics files (such as a FAX page,
a Plan 9 image(7) file, an
Inferno bitmap file, or other common format). Page displays these
in sequence. In the absence of named files, page reads one from
By default, page runs in the window in which it is started and
leaves the window unchanged. The −R option causes page to grow
the window if necessary to display the page being viewed. The
−w option causes page to create a new window for itself. The newly
created window will grow as under the −R option. If being used
to display multipage
documents, only one file may be specified on the command line.
The −p option sets the resolution for PostScript and PDF files,
in pixels per inch. The default is 100 ppi. The −r option reverses
the order in which pages are displayed.
When viewing a document, page will try to guess the true bounding
box, usually rounding up from the file’s bounding box to 8½x11 or
A4 size. The −b option causes it to respect the bounding box given
in the file. As a more general problem, some PostScript files
claim to conform to Adobe’s Document Structuring Conventions but
do not. The −P option
enables a slightly slower and slightly more skeptical version
of the PostScript processing code. Unfortunately, there are PostScript
documents that can only be viewed with the −P option, and there
are PostScript documents that can only be viewed without it.
When viewing images with page, it listens to the image plumbing
channel (see plumber(4)) for more images to display. The −i option
causes page to not load any graphics files nor to read from standard
input but rather to listen for ones to load from the plumbing
The −v option turns on extra debugging output, and the −V option
turns on even more debugging output. The −a option causes page
to call Unix’s abort(3) rather than exit cleanly on errors, to
Pressing and holding button 1 permits panning about the page.
Button 2 raises a menu of operations on the current image or the
entire set. The image transformations are non-destructive and
are valid only for the currently displayed image. They are lost
as soon as another image is displayed. The button 2 menu operations
Zoom Prompts the user to sweep a rectangle on the image which is
expanded proportionally to the rectangle.
Restores the image to the original. All modifications are lost.|
Resizes the image so that it fits in the current window.|
Rotates the image 90 degrees clockwise|
Next Displays the next page.
Toggles whether images are displayed upside-down.|
Prev Displays the previous page.
Zerox Displays the current image in a new page window. Useful for
selecting important pages from large documents.
ReverseReverses the order in which pages are displayed.
Write Writes the image to file.
Button 3 raises a menu of the pages to be selected for viewing
in any order.
Typing a q or control-D exits the program. Typing a u toggles
whether images are displayed upside-down. (This is useful in the
common case of mistransmitted upside-down faxes). Typing a r reverses
the order in which pages are displayed. Typing a w will write
the currently viewed page to a new file as a compressed image(7)
file. When possible,
the filename is of the form basename.pagenum.bit. Typing a d removes
an image from the working set.
To go to a specific page, one can type its number followed by
enter. Typing left arrow, backspace, or minus displays the previous
page. Typing right arrow, space, or enter displays the next page.
The up and down arrow pan up and down one half screen height,
changing pages when panning off the top or bottom of the page.
Page calls Unix’s gs(1) to draw each page of PostScript and PDF
files. It also calls a variety of conversion programs, such as
those described in jpg(1), to convert the various raster graphics
formats into Inferno bitmap files. Pages are converted “on the
fly,” as needed.
Display a color PostScript file.|
man −t page | page −w
Browse the Inferno bitmap library.|
Preview this manual in a new window.|
The mouse cursor changes to an arrow and ellipsis when page is
reading or writing a file.|
Page supports reading of only one document file at a time, and
the user interface is clumsy when viewing very large documents.
When viewing multipage PostScript files that do not contain “%%Page”
comments, the button 3 menu only contains “this page” and “next
page”: correctly determining page boundaries in Postscript code
is not computable in the general case.
If page has trouble viewing a Postscript file, it might not be
exactly conforming: try viewing it with the −P option.
The interface to the plumber is unsatisfactory. In particular,
document references cannot be sent via plumbing messages.
There are too many keyboard commands and menu items.
Displaying a PostScript or PDF file depends both on having GhostScript
(see gs(1)) installed and on the underlying operating system providing
a file descriptor device tree at /dev/fd.
Some FreeBSD installations do not provide file descriptors greater
than 2 in /dev/fd. To fix this, add|
to /etc/fstab, and then mount /dev/fd. (Adding the line to fstab
ensures causes FreeBSD to mount the file system automatically
at boot time.)
/fdescfs /dev/fd fdescfs rw 0 0|