tcs – translate character sets

tcs [ −slcv ] [ −f ics ] [ −t ocs ] [ file ... ]

Tcs interprets the named file(s) (standard input default) as a stream of characters from the ics character set or format, converts them to runes, and then converts them into a stream of characters from the ocs character set or format on the standard output. The default value for ics and ocs is utf, the UTF encoding described in utf(7). The −l option lists the character sets known to tcs. Processing continues in the face of conversion errors (the −s option prevents reporting of these errors). The −c option forces the output to contain only correctly converted characters; otherwise, 0x80 characters will be substituted for UTF encoding errors and 0xFFFD characters will substituted for unknown characters.
The −v option generates various diagnostic and summary information on standard error, or makes the −l output more verbose.
Tcs recognizes an ever changing list of character sets. In particular, it supports a variety of Russian and Japanese encodings. Some of the supported encodings are
utf       The Plan 9 UTF encoding, known by ISO as UTF-8
utf1      The deprecated original UTF encoding from ISO 10646
ascii      7-bit ASCII
8859−1     Latin-1 (Central European)
8859−2     Latin-2 (Czech .. Slovak)
8859−3     Latin-3 (Dutch .. Turkish)
8859−4     Latin-4 (Scandinavian)
8859−5     Part 5 (Cyrillic)
8859−6     Part 6 (Arabic)
8859−7     Part 7 (Greek)
8859−8     Part 8 (Hebrew)
8859−9     Latin-5 (Finnish .. Portuguese)
koi8      KOI-8 (GOST 19769-74)
jis−kanji   ISO 2022-JP
ujis      EUC-JX: JIS 0208
ms−kanji   Microsoft, or Shift-JIS
jis       (from only) guesses between ISO 2022-JP, EUC or Shift-Jis
gb        Chinese national standard (GB2312-80)
big5      Big 5 (HKU version)
unicode    Unicode Standard 1.0
tis       Thai character set plus ASCII (TIS 620-1986)
msdos      IBM PC: CP 437
atari      Atari-ST character set

tcs −f 8859−1
Convert 8859-1 (Latin-1) characters into UTF format.
tcs −s −f jis
Convert characters encoded in one of several shift JIS encodings into UTF format. Unknown Kanji will be converted into 0xFFFD characters.
tcs −lv
Print an up to date list of the supported character sets.


ascii(1), rune(3), utf(7).

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